The First Woman To Earn A Medical Degree License in Ireland or the UK?

DUBLINTIMEMACHINE: Today in 1877 a woman called Eliza Walker Dunbar became the first female to earn a medical licence in Ireland or Great Britain. The trailblazer passed her medical exams with flying colours in The Royal College of Physicians, which was then called the “King and Queen’s College of Physicians in Ireland.”

Of course, this late-in-the-game first for women was no reflection of female intelligence or talent, but rather just another symptom of a misogynistic status quo that treated women as unequal in intellect or ability. Conveniently, this oppression also kept men on top of every social stratum whilst also freed males from domestic responsibilities they might have regarded as less than heroic or glamorous.

Dunbar was a true child of the Empire. Born in the Raj of British India, her Da was Scottish and she was educated in Cheltenham, England. It was that very international flavour of her CV which convinced the Council of the King and Queen’s College of Physicians that her graduation wouldn’t count as competition for her medical peers in Ireland. On the basis she told them she would take her qualifications elsewhere….an early victim of our brain drain!

The 1858 Medical Act technically didn’t bar women, so much as make it effectively impossible to qualify as a doctor by making it illegal for them to study medicine at Royal Colleges, universities, and medical institutions.

The Enabling Act of 1876, long campaigned for by a significant underground network of renegade female physicians and academics, like Dr. Sophia Jex-Blake, finally broke the stethoscope ceiling. King and Queen’s College of Physicians in Ireland was the first institution to use this new legislation.

How Sinn Feins supposed lurch to the “right” may be a last-ditch establishment gambit to lead protestors over the edge of a cliff


The year 2023 resulted in a seismic shift in the Irish political landscape. The previously impregnable walls of mainstream media have been breached by those opposing the free-for-all immigration system.

Suddenly, the so-called ‘far right’ talking points are inside the castle’s fortifications, attempting to break it down, bit by bit, argument by argument. But there is a long long way to go.

In this information war, our side, through sheer force of numbers, has eventually managed to storm the garrison, but an almighty battle awaits as the incumbents attempt to reinforce their numbers with the new proposed hate speech law and a crackdown on social media platforms like Twitter.

Amidst the tumult, Sinn Féin is now trying to position itself to hoover up the mostly mythical ‘far right’ vote.

But can they be trusted?

Could this be simply a ploy to neuter the protestors and lead the silent majority over the edge of a cliff?

SF has long been running with the hounds regarding the government’s free-for-all immigration policy, but now their duplicitous approach of attempting to run with the hares may well backfire. There is a risk they may alienate the extreme hard-left ‘wokesters’ within their ranks.

At the same time, how can any self-respecting protestor who has stood alone against the status quo’s extremist immigration policies trust SF when, for the past several years, they’ve been shouted down and called fascists and Nazis by the very same party now attempting to position themselves as their defenders?

A cynic might say that this is an establishment (recently rattled by events on the streets) attempting to neuter the burgeoning but leaderless cohort of the population who are wise to the wider EU and globalist agenda of ‘ever closer union’ or, as the late Peter Sutherland stated, to ‘undermine national homogeneity’ via mass unlimited immigration.

They are wise to the disenfranchisement of the Irish people within their own country. And even if they aren’t fully aware of the tactics and goals at play, they can sense that something deeply sinister is afoot against little old Ireland.

A new tactic?

The recent protest at Ringsend, where a SF representative called a group blockading a road a ‘splinter group’ and then urged them to get off the road, is a case in point.

The protestors, who possess a meek arsenal of legal weapons with which to wage their campaign, were being told by the SF rep to decommission their one useful tool: blockading.

It reeks of attempting to lead the protestors into a pen. Just get them off the streets and placate them with empty platitudes, divide and rule, and then slither off into the undergrowth like a snake after the damage has been done.

It’s instructive how Mary Lou McDonald recently stated that the government should have been engaging with ‘good people involved in sporting organizations…constructive, decent people for whom the inn is not full.’ This tells a story in itself. She wants engagement with sporting entities who are largely beholden to the government for funding. Organizations that didn’t even raise a murmur these last few years.

Organizations who watched on and said nothing as large swathes of the Irish population were disenfranchised and increasingly treated as second-class citizens in their own country. In other words, she wants captured voices to represent the protestors.

Captured voices who are not only on the hook for government grants, etc., but who, one suspects, may be profiting directly from the state’s insane free-for-all immigration policies.

The second part of her statement is even more instructive and self-explanatory: ‘The inn is not full.’ Which basically amounts to business as usual. Nothing to see here. The show must go on. The establishment’s cash cow, or the golden goose laying the golden egg, must remain untouched. Never mind the wider implications on social cohesion or how these unprecedented actions may tear apart the very fabric of Irish society for years to come.

How far will the establishment go when you hear noises about vast numbers of ‘climate refugees’ coming in from Africa? Or what about the Palestinians, for whom most of us have deep sympathy, coming to our shores en masse? Does anyone remember the civil war that was sparked in Lebanon when huge numbers of Palestinians moved there? Or the conflict that ignited when vast numbers of Palestinians moved into Jordan? Cold, hard facts need to trump altruistic one-world utopian tendencies.

The fact is the dangers of religious division ripple through the DNA of nearly every Irishman and woman. And if they don’t, they should.

Nobody has any issues with a sensible and reasonable immigration system, but this should not be to the detriment of the people who built this country up. It should not fracture a nation along ethnic or religious grounds. It should not facilitate a Trojan horse agenda which is to ultimately destroy the nation-state.

Ireland’s immigration policy is akin to getting a knock on your door and then letting the person into your house without even looking at who is standing there in the first place. The more rational of minds know that it’s wise to look through the peephole, open the door if the person seems like a reasonable individual, talk to them for a few moments to discern whether said individual may be a threat or not (basic vetting), and then, and only then, let the person into your house. And if, after you’ve let them into the house, they start breaking stuff and acting up, you remove them from your premises (deportation).

Open door policy?

Whereas the far-left policy is to blindly open the door and welcome every last person into the house. And then, when the guest starts breaking the guitar that was meant to be played when singing ‘Kumbaya My Lord’ over their head, their first action is to exonerate them with some bleeding-heart story and repeat the cycle ad nauseam.

The latter knows the system will always provide them with get-out cards. The former knows they have only one house, one island, and protect it they must. And will.

Why should the people of Ireland be forced to endure someone happy to reap the fruits of the labor of the nation without ever putting their hand to the wheel? (i.e., the murderer of Ashling Murphy).

The far left loves rolling out the old trope of ‘cultural enrichment,’ clearly if the system was doing its job properly, it would have known that in the case of Joseph Puskas (Ashling’s murderer) and many other cases, there was never any cultural enrichment. Quite the opposite.

The far left will argue, ‘What about the criminals we already have here?’ And it’s a valid point. But the fact is, there is very little you can do with the inherent structural defects of a house. Isn’t it your obligation, your duty, to take preventative measures to prevent further deterioration when you can clearly do so? Isn’t it a dereliction of duty when you fail to do so?

Just because you have one crack running through your house, should you invite someone else in with a sledgehammer to create another? Isn’t there an onus on you to stop further rot when you can do so?

This dereliction of duty across the political spectrum will leave lots of casualties in its wake, and perhaps even the heirs apparent, Sinn Féin.

The way I see it, they have blown their chance of overall power. These past few years, Sinn Féin courted the mainstream media, the woke mob, LGBT, climate alarmism, the EU, but the one group they haven’t courted is the Irish people.

They haven’t listened to 75% of Irish people who have voiced reservations regarding the free-for-all immigration policy.

The media even credited Sinn Féin for this self-inflicted own goal. Praising them for sticking with traditional establishment viewpoints even when upwards of 80% of their own political base had grave reservations regarding their direction. Sinn Féin lapped it all up.

In essence, the media was crediting Sinn Féin for taking a pistol out and kneecapping their own political ambitions. Whether they were blinkered enough to see this folly or not is anyone’s guess. Perhaps with the ultimate goal of power in their grasp, their tunnel vision blinded them to the trap they were falling into.

Now, with this apparent about-face, they are attempting to stem the flow of blood from the self-inflicted wound. But it remains to be seen whether they can stop the hemorrhaging of votes which polls suggest is occurring. The damage may be irreparable.

For many, the supposed last vanguard of nationalism has been exposed as nothing more than die-hard globalists. The same as all the other parties. For some in the traditional republican voting base, a sense of betrayal wafts through the air.

They’ve voted for the most draconian hate speech laws ever witnessed in a Western society. A desperate attempt by all establishment parties to clamp down on political dissent and to preserve their aura as ‘best boys in the class’ image to their technocratic masters from abroad.

One suspects, this will prove a massive own goal if the Gardaí start rounding up people and prosecuting them for having memes on their phones, etc. Beware of creating martyrs in Ireland. It never ends well.

With the lurch away from traditional political philosophies across Europe and the world, there will be many eyes keenly watching Ireland with intense scrutiny. For our side, an over-the-top crackdown by the state should be welcomed, because it will expose the establishment as the authoritarian, totalitarian fascists that they are.

Even your most moderate voter will be disgusted if they start throwing people in jail for a few tweets or memes. The world will be disgusted. Let the establishment fall into the trap of their own making.

Pandering to overlords from faraway shores trumps domestic concerns.

The reality is, for the political class, Ireland is just a mere stepping stone before some plush job with the EU or an extremely well-funded NGO. Paschal Donohues proposed new role as head of the IMF is emblematic of this. They want nothing more than to proudly proclaim to some unelected foreign technocrat ‘Look at how we gagged and controlled the Irish population with our hate speech law. We have broken the backs of the nationalists.’ Little old Ireland is to be served up to the globalists like a Christmas Turkey. But they’ve forgotten that old Paddy Irishman is a formidable opponent when you get his blood up.   

 Recent protests and events have exposed Ireland as an antagonistic and unruly population that is endangering the prospects of Leo and Coveney, etc securing the much coveted EU job when they’re finished serving Ireland up to his EU  and globalist masters.

The riots in Dublin prevent the political class from grandstanding their European “partners” when attending one of their regular summits. Because of this perceived failure, Varadaker and his ilk might have to accept a “secondary” job with an Irish NGO and make do with only 150k per year. The poor people. You can almost hear Leo whispering “Just be a good Paddy and do as you’re told. I have my career to think of here.” 

 With their contemptuous disregard for the wishes of the majority of Irish people, the only thing they have succeeded in doing is to awaken the nationalist leviathan from its slumber. Who knows where this fire will end up when she fully catches wind?  In the words of Patrick Pearse,  “They think that they have pacified Ireland. They think that they have purchased half of us and intimidated the other half. They think that they have foreseen everything, think that they have provided against everything; but the fools, the fools, the fools!”

Fairy Punishments and Ancestral Disconnection.

One of the more recurrent punishments suffered by those who offend the good folk is that of sight being afflicted, or even going so far as physical damage to the eyes.

A story from my own locale tells of a man named Malone who tried to flatten one of the nearby fairy hills, Rathvilly Moat, only to have eye poked out.

Malone arrived at the hill to make sure that the workers were destroying the mound as he had instructed, but the workers were purposefully delaying because they did not want a curse to fall upon them for offending the fairies believed to reside within the mound.

Malone, tried to take over the job himself, and began to dig into the moat.

He then saw that a hole appeared in the earth near where he was digging and he proceeded to push his cane down inside it.

When he lay down to peer inside, his cane was then thrust upwards, instantly blinding him in one eye.

The full account has been preserved in the folklore archives here:

There is also another tale of a man who decided to search for the hidden entrance into the mound, as legend speaks of a great treasure inside the moat, and so the man spent the day digging around the thorn-bushes and growth which surround it. Although he dug and dug, he could not find the entrance and decided to finally give up and go home. As he was leaving he noticed a huge amount of crows surrounding the mound and cawing loudly.

When he arrived back at his house he began to bleed from his eyes until the next morning.

Needless to say, he did not go looking for a secret entrance into the moat again!

In Wentz’s Fairy Faith in Celtic Countries there are stories which echo this phenomenon of fairies taking the sight of humans who disrespect them.

(It must be said, though, that often the disrespect is not intended, and the fairies are sometimes portrayed as being quite cruel with the level of their punishments.)

One famous example describes how a midwife is taken by the fairies to assist in the birth of a fairy child.

Quite why the fairies need human help has been argued about by scholars for a long time.

One theory put forward is that these are changeling children: half-fairy, half-human and so the physiological differences require human help.

In this account, then, the human midwife is returned to the human world following the fairy birth. Before leaving she notices some of the other women rubbing water on their eyes from a basin and so she does the same.

Months later she spots the fairies wandering around a local market. No other human seems to notice them. When she approaches the fairies and tells them that she remembers them from the birth they ask her which eye she can see them with.

They then blow onto her eye and blind her permanently.

In some versions the fairies are even more cruel and take away the woman’s sight in both eyes.

Now, let me reiterate, there are many variations of this story. Here are a few more:…/fairy-midwife-magic…/

Also, here is an excellent paper on the phenomenon of fairy ointment and the deeper esoteric and metaphysical connotations by Neil Rushton.…/visioning-the…/

When we examine the motif of an eye or sight being sacrificed for secret wisdom or initiation we find ourselves in deep, mythological and spiritual waters.In Ireland, St. Brigid was said to have plucked out her own eye in order to demonstrate her intention to give her life to God.

And, of course, Odin deliberately sacrificed an eye in order to drink from the waters of Mimir’s well at the bottom of the world tree, Yggdrasil, thus giving him access to all of Mimir’s wisdom.

The eye is symbolic of perception in a mystical and esoteric sense. The idea of giving up everyday sight for a different type of seeing is describing the willingness to embark upon an inner journey and a rejection of the mundane world.

The English philosopher and writer, Gary Osborn, redrew attention to the symbolism of the inner eye which was alluded to in many, ancient esoteric texts. Osborn wrote of a third eye, spiritual triad constituted of the pineal and pituitary glands, as well as thalamus, which is the real revelation here.

Osborn goes against the grain in that he argues the importance of the pineal is an “occult blind”.

Backing Osborn up on this is recent research demonstrating that the area of the thalamus is often over-active in those who report mystic episodes and paranormal experiences involving supernatural entities.

Which brings us back to fairies…

The idea that certain people can see both the human world and, at times, the fairy Otherworld, is intimately connected to those who accept the role of seer, witch, shaman in Asian cultures, and witchdoctors and medicine people.

As we have explored before, sometimes this role is determined by a sickness or accident befalling the person, whereas on other occasions the spirits/ ancestors and those called fairies will seek the individual out themselves.

So, might some of the incidents which seem to be punishments actually be the misunderstanding of the fairy purpose, or even a persons fear of taking up the role the fairies have decided that they must fulfil?

I have written about this idea before and it is one which is worth reiterating.

Professor Éva Pócs, in her paper, Small Gods, Small Demons: remnants of an Archaic Fairy Cult in Central and South-Eastern Europe’ writes, “One common motif is a serious illness that the selected individual needs to undergo, as well as punishment by the fairies of any reluctant candidates.”

So, as we can see, it is well known in ancient cultures that the fairies will punish those who refuse to take up their role as healer or communicator between worlds.

My own sense is that often this is not always understood by the failed practitioner: sometimes a person may inadvertently say no to the fairy request, simply because they do not have the understanding or inner sight to comprehend what is being asked.

In these cases, then, might some of what we understand as fairy punishments be, in fact, the consequences of this disconnect?

Ireland has a long tradition of ‘fairy darts’, ‘elf-shot’ and wounding encounters with the Other Crowd.

When this occurs, a person is pierced with these seemingly supernatural objects.

In terms of medicine men and the bean feasa, this was deemed to bestow an ability to heal the sick, see future events and deal with ancestral spirits.

However, from Medieval times in Ireland, a Christianised, negative connotation took over when a person reported such encounters: they had succumb to demons and fallen angels, instead!

Someone known to have had such an experience was cursed, from a religious point of view, even though local people, themselves, still had no hesitation in asking for advice and spells from such individuals.

This transition from being instinctively named a healer to that of an outcast or ‘cursed’ witch often depended upon the leniency and influence of the local priest and doctor.

Writing in Aboriginal Men of High Degree, A.P. Elkin describes an Australian Aboriginal account of a medicine man taken by ‘spirits’ into the sky world where an operation is performed on him by having quartz crystals inserted into his side. He could henceforth visit the sky and establish communication with the sky spirits and even be summoned by them.

The Aboriginal tribes of The Southern Murray region reflect the same beliefs as other Australian indigenous people which they say have been passed down in oral form for over 60’000 years.

Aboriginal cave art depicting these encounters with the sky-serpent spirits have been dated to at least 40’000 BCE.

At a deeper time-depth, are the paintings of the San people of Botswana and what is today South Africa. Many of these depict the figure of the ‘wounded man’, a medicine man who has travelled to the spirit world and is cut open by the spirits in order to have magic stones placed inside his body.

The earliest San paintings are currently dated to 70’000 BCE but according to archaeologist, Chris Henshilwood, some may be revised further to 100’000 BCE.

The Wounded Man motif is one which can be applied to higher deities such as Odin, who visit the spirit world and are pierced by a supernatural object, or lose a body part, as we have already mentioned, in order to gain Otherworldly wisdom.

This tradition even appears subtly in the context of Jesus, the sun god, being pierced in his side before he enters the ‘kingdom’.

In San tradition, a healer may have all of their inner organs removed and replaced before being healed and put back together, or they may simply have a magic stone fired into them in the form of an arrow or dart.

As mentioned, in more recent Irish folklore, being struck by a fairy dart is considered exclusively hostile and the illness which these arrows bring are maladies to be vanquished.

What is being overlooked here is that these “shamanic” sicknesses are an essential aspect of the initiation process, and a medicine man or woman usually cannot become a fully reintegrated healer without going through these time-observed processes.

In fact, it is often argued by tribal elders that to attempt to avoid one’s fate as a spirit healer can bring about premature death or madness.

This is echoed in the research of Professor Pócs and European fairy lore, as I have already mentioned

This is very interesting within an Irish context, as many who found themselves struck by fairy darts were inhibited from following through on the traditional pathway because of church advice and witchcraft protocol.

As a result, the madness that these wounds were said to bring may in fact be consequences of an unfinished ritual as opposed to being the primary symptom of the elf-shot or fairy-dart.

So, am I arguing that fairies do not punish or take retribution on humans? No, of course not. The accounts of Malone at the start of this piece as well as many of the fairy midwife tales more than prove this is not the case.

However, I think it is beyond doubt that we must leave room for some of the fairy punishments being the result of an individual not fulfilling a destiny asked of them by the fairies or ancestral spirits.
Unfortunately, I also think that some cases are the result of ignorance and innocence: human time and fairy time may bring about a disconnect whereby fairies themselves may be unaware of just how much of an impact cultural changes have on tradition and ancestral connection.
A complex subject, to be sure, but, hopefully, one that is worth contemplating.
(C.) David Halpin.
Image: Brooke Shaden.

Writing in Aboriginal Men of High Degree, A.P. Elkin describes an Australian Aboriginal account of a medicine man taken by ‘spirits’ into the sky world where an operation is performed on him by having quartz crystals inserted into his side. He could henceforth visit the sky and establish communication with the sky spirits and even be summoned by them.
The Aboriginal tribes of The Southern Murray region reflect the same beliefs as other Australian indigenous people which they say have been passed down in oral form for over 60’000 years.
Aboriginal cave art depicting these encounters with the sky-serpent spirits have been dated to at least 40’000 BCE.
At a deeper time-depth, are the paintings of the San people of Botswana and what is today South Africa. Many of these depict the figure of the ‘wounded man’, a medicine man who has travelled to the spirit world and is cut open by the spirits in order to have magic stones placed inside his body.
The earliest San paintings are currently dated to 70’000 BCE but according to archaeologist, Chris Henshilwood, some may be revised further to 100’000 BCE.
The Wounded Man motif is one which can be applied to higher deities such as Odin, who visit the spirit world and are pierced by a supernatural object, or lose a body part, as we have already mentioned, in order to gain Otherworldly wisdom.
This tradition even appears subtly in the context of Jesus, the sun god, being pierced in his side before he enters the ‘kingdom’.
In San tradition, a healer may have all of their inner organs removed and replaced before being healed and
(C.) David Halpin.
Image: Brooke Shaden.
Page: Brooke Shaden Photography
#fairies #fairy #shaman #witch #witchcraft #pagan #paganism #esoteric #fae #ancestors #animism #fortean #wicklow #archaeology #druid #heathen #seer #goddess #holywell #megalithic #folklore #celt #norsemythology #odin #celticmythology #irish #irishfolklore

Louth history? Things to do in Omeath?

(c) @ ireland and pegs cottage
The picturesque village of Omeath in County Louth is surprisingly rich in history and legend, even for Ireland! It nestles at the foot of the Cooley Mountains, looking out over Carlingford Lough to the Mourne Mountains, and is divided into ten townlands.
There’s Ardaghy where you’ll find the homestead of famous blind poet Seamus MacCuarta, also a turf bog road where you’ll see a Mass Rock, a legacy of penal times when priests were forbidden to say Mass but did so daily under penalty of death from this rock.

Omeath secrets

In summer months jarveys (drivers of jaunting cars) transport pilgrims to The Calvary to pray at the Shrine of St Jude, the patron saint of hopeless cases. Also at The Calvary is the historic Way of the Cross, the beautiful Lourdes Grotto, the image of the Divine Mercy and the Fr. Gentili Crypt and Gardens. At the fields of Bavan you’ll see where the first recorded Gaelic football match was hosted in 1750, and at Cornamucklagh you’ll find Flagstaff View, a fabulous vantage point over Carlingford Lough, the Mountains of Mourne and the Newry Canal as it meanders into Newry.

History of Omeath

Corrakit is where you’ll find the Grave of the Long Woman. Knocknagoran is at the heart of Omeath and here you’ll find coast guard cottages and a hotel built in 1840 to accommodate tourists and smugglers from Belfast to socialise and trade at the crossroads each Sunday.
Lislea holds the secrets of the last Gaelic speakers of the area. Their homesteads can still be visited here and stories heard of the flight of the Fadgies (Fruit and Fish Peddlers) from Omeath to Belfast, taking with them the Gaelic tongue that can still be heard in Belfast today.
Tullagh is a memory to the hard times of yesteryear with its Famine Bridge and Clermont Pass, a road cut out of the side of the mountain with voluntary labour during the Second World War, or ‘The Emergency’ as WWII was known in Ireland. Also in Tullagh there’s a field where shamrock never grows.

Lions led by Donkeys | Into the mind of a conspiracy theorist

This is the same mainstream media who told us that arch paedophile Jimmy Saville was just a harmless old eccentric. They told us that you could trust your kids with Jimmy. The mainstream media trusted Jimmy so much that they helped get him knighted Sir Jimmy Saville.  A national treasure. The media told us that, Jim’ll fix it.

This is the same mainstream media who told us Iraq had weapons of mass destruction. They told us the coalition forces were going to liberate and free the Iraqis. The coalition killed millions of innocent people and then made off with Iraq’s oil and gold like bandits. Iraq didn’t have weapons of mass destruction. It was all a gigantic lie. A con.

Not to mention a mountain of other scandals including, phone hacking, fake news stories, political bias, and taking money from big business with vested interests and using their media platforms to push a biased narrative.

Now we are expected to believe these proven liars have suddenly transformed into fountains of truth? Sorry, we just don’t buy it. If RTE was renamed Pinocchio they would have a nose as big as the spire in the middle of O Connell street!

These are the same political class who told us Charlie Haughey was a statesman with the best interests of Ireland at heart. They told us to tighten our belts whilst Haughey and his ilk were filling their snouts with taxpayers money like pigs at the trough.  They told us Charlie wasn’t taking brown envelopes. You can trust Charlie.

These are the same political class who told us that unexplained money was just resting in Bertie Aherns account. That Bertie had a good day at the races. They told us that there was nothing to see there. You could trust Bertie. Bertie didn’t know anything about brown envelope’s either.

At one stage, in Ireland, there was a  rail system whose tentacles reached nearly every major town in Ireland, but then the political class came up with a brainwave: lets rip the railway to shreds. They told us that ripping up these railways( worth tens of billions today) was for the good of the country. They told us that these railways would be better off in a skip. Trust the politicians.

These are the same political class who told us that us we had to give 64billion of public money to bail out fat cat bankers. They told us that giving this 64 billion to these fat cats was for our own benefit. That this 64 billion would be better off in the pockets of bankers and speculators. They told us to trust them, that they had our best interests at heart.

This is the same political class who sold away our greatest natural resource, our Irish fishing rights, for a few measly crumbs. They told us that it would cost too much money to build a fishing fleet. That they had no money for the fishing fleet, but they could miraculously pull 63billion out of their arses to give to their banker buddys.

These are the same political class who told us it was a good idea to destroy the services in local hospitals like Monaghan and dozens of other hospitals across the country.  They told us these hospitals weren’t needed. That we had too many hospital beds. We didn’t need all of these beds. Trust the politician’s.

These are the same political class who up until 1960’s supported the rights of religious organisations to take babies off single mothers and place them in “homes”. They told us it was for the good of the babies and it was for the good of the mothers.  They used some of these babies as Guinea Pigs for Vaccine experiment’s, starved the rest of them, and then dumped 800 of them down into a septic tank. You can trust the politician’s, they said.  They have everyone’s best interests at heart.

If we question proven conmen and degenerate’s that doesn’t make us conspiracy theorists, it means we know the track record of the people who purport to speak for us, we know the crimes against humanity that they are guilty of.

These are the same medical experts who told us the swine flu vaccine was safe. They were so convinced it was going to be safe that they wanted an indemnity so that nobody could sue them. Now some of the recipients of the vaccine are suing the government instead.

These are the same Scientists who gave every household in Ireland Iodine Tablets in case of nuclear attack. These told us that if in the event of mega tonne nuclear attack that if we popped these tablets they would miraculously save us.

These are the same medical experts(Tony Holohan) who told us that 206 women were free of Cancer when they were riddled with it. The same experts who attempted to cover it up( Holohan) to protect their own arses.  So please forgive some of us if we don’t buy into the Holohan “superman” narrative.

These are the same type of elite world class level Scientists who in 1986 told us the Challenger Space Shuttle was safe to go to the Moon and back. It exploded killing everyone on board a few minutes after its launch.

They told us (Professor Ferguson) during the foot and mouth outbreak in 2001 that 150,000 people would die.  Fewer than 200 did.

They us told (Professor Ferguson) in 2005 that 150 million people would be killed by the bird flu. In the end 282 people died.

They told us( Professor Ferguson) to stay inside during the current pandemic, but this rule didn’t apply to Mr Ferguson as he was away fornicating with some young one!

These are the same Scientists told us Zars, Zika, Ebola, etc, etc were going to wipe out masses of humans. They didn’t.

So please forgive us if some of us have the audacity to question a “science” whose predictions are so far off the mark that a drunk picking a Horse in the Grand National would give you a more accurate guess.

If questioning proven liars, shysters, conmen, and incompetents makes us conspiracy theorists well then that’s fair enough,  but what does it make someone who just blindly swallows every word these people say?

This article was compiled by Seamus Hanratty a freelance SEO copywriter. If you are looking to hire a freelance SEO copywriter contact us and recieve a free quote.

What are the strange statues on Boa Island County Fermanagh?

Boa Island Fermanagh

Situated on the island of Boa in County Fermanagh stands some of the most remarkable and mysterious stone figures in Ireland or Europe. These bizarre statutes hark back to an era of Paganism, sacrifice, and a whole host of other activities.So what exactly are these enigmatic figures that have the power to captivate the imagination?

The Janus figure

Boa Island Fermanagh

It is widely believed that these structures date from an early Christian period, perhaps from around(400-800AD).One of these figures is widely referred to as a Janus figure and this is because it has a head on either side of it.

The figure is 73cm in height and 45cm wide. Whilst the figure is reminiscent of the two headed Roman diety known as a Janus, but in spite of this resemblance, the general consensus is that the figure is not a Roman Janus.

It is believed that the figure represents a Celtic god or goddess. Some people reckon that the head represents the Goddess Babhbha who was the Celtic God of war and fertility. What supports this theory is that BOA island is named after Badhbh the Celtic goddess of war.

More evidence that supports this theory is that people of that era had no reading or writing skills but because of this lack of literacy they had phenomenal memory power, and consequently, could easily pass stories and place names down from generation to generation without the story ever changing or deviating too much.

Each side of this mysterious figure has an intricately carved face and a torso. Where the two separate faces are joined there is an interlace design that may represent hair joined as one. The faces are large, pointy, with straight noses and small mouths from which protrudes pointy chins.

Bizarrely, the figure has no neck with the head directly on its torso. There originally was another part to the figure which encompassed long fingers carved into the rock but this part of the structure broke away.

This section was recently discovered buried in the ground nearby. The east side of the figure faces sunrise and the bearded figure that is engraved within seems to be speaking.

The lustyman


The second figure that is located at Boa was originally found at Lustymore Island but it was then relocated to Boa. Known as “The Lustyman” it was brought to Boa Island in 1939.

This figure measures in at 70cm in height and it has been extremely worn down by rain, weather and time. Some people believe that due to the deteriorated condition of “The lustyman” that the figure actually pre-dates the Janus.

Some of the theories that revolve around the structure the mythical woman Sheela na Gigs who was said to ward of evil spirits. These figures were usually placed outside homes or place of worship so to ward of any evil spirits from entering.

Relevance to the modern era?

boa island fermanagh

Perhaps in the modern world we have more in common with our pagan ancestors than we might like to think as we worship the gods of money and digital devices. As soon as we arise in the morning we bow down and genuflect in front of our TV’s, Laptops, and Ipads, and Iphones.

At least the ancient Irish only spent a few moments worshipping their Boa Statutes and then got on with the rest of their day, but nowadays, many people spend the entire day prostrate paying homage to their mobile phone.

The ancients might have saw visions of their gods and goddesses in the clouds but the image the modern man might see in the clouds would be the apparition of a mobile phone followed by a rumble of noise which would announce, “tweet, tweet, tweet, ding, ding….” Perhaps, in many ways we have managed to out-pagan the pagans?


Overall, I think that these figures at Boa Island are some of the most remarkable figures in Ireland. They truly have an ability to captivate the imagination.

Imagine the time, effort, and craftsmanship that it would have taken to carve these figures out of a huge solid block of rock. The makers of these enchanting structures must have laboured and laboured night and day to try and perfect the engravings.

The fact that the figures have managed to survive thousands of years is another testament to their enduring power. These figures meant something. They became a focal point for the communities of that era. Gatherings would have taken place at these statues.

What time of gatherings? Who knows? Many as the sun rose of set each day people would congregate at these locations to welcome the coming light of day or to ward of the spirits of the approaching night as the sun dipped into its sleep.

Maybe it was an attempt to try and put a face to some of the figures and spirits that the Celts or ancient Irish felt were all around them? Perhaps, these images could have been reflective of some common dream?

Maybe as the night approached the people would try and evoke whatever powers they felt the statutes had to try and protect the tribe? Remember this was an era were death would have been constant, people weren’t expected to survive too long.

We will never really know what these strange and unusual statutes stood for but that doesn’t stop us from guessing.

I’ll leave the last words to the great poet Seamus Heaney who was inspired to write a poem when he visited Boa Island and laid eyes on the statutes.

January God by Seamus Heaney

Then I found a two faced stone

On burial ground,

God-eyed, sex-mouthed, it’s brain

A watery wound. 

In the wet gap of the year,

Daubed with fresh lake mud,

I faltered near his power —-

January God. 

Who broke the water, the hymen

With his great antlers —-

There reigned upon each ghost tine

His familiars,

The mothering earth, the stones

Taken by each wave,

The fleshy aftergrass, the bones

Subsoil in each grave. 

Where is Irelands “City of the Dead”? What happened there?

portal dolmen

We all know about Egypt’s mysterious Valley of the Kings, were countless gold encrusted Pharaohs were placed into their tombs for eternity, but I bet you’ve never heard about Ireland’s ominous sounding “City of the dead”?

The very name“City of the dead” evokes fantastical images of some kind of Zombie apocalypse, but the place is real, zombie apocalypse aside, and it comes equipped with over 100 tombs whose time-line stretches back into the dark depths of Irish history.

The similarities with Egypt don’t end there with tomb raiders plundering the site in the 1800’s and not be outdone by the Tomb Raiders, in 1983 Sligo Council showed their “reverence and respect” for Irish culture and history by attempting to turn the site into a dump for rubbish. Luckily, some locals appealed to the Supreme Court and blocked Sligo County Councils grand designs.

The place I am referring to is Carrowmore Megalithich site near Sligo which is the largest megalithic site not only in Ireland but also one of the largest in Europe. Dating back to 4600BC it is believed that there are or were over 100 tombs or monuments located at Carrowmore.

Sadly, the area was extensively damaged in the 19th century due to quarrying and land clearance. But even though the site is much diminished from its former glories it is still an impressive capsule of history.

At Carrowmore, you can set your eyes on the remains of portal tombs, chamber tombs, portal dolmens, ring forts, and Cairns dating back thousands of years.

During excavations in 1837, each archaeological site was given a number a tag as an identifier. In more recent excavations that were conducted by Swedish archaeologists some of the items found in these tombs dated by as much as 4600BC.

Largest site

Passage tomb

The largest site at Carrowmore is a site known as Listoghill. An interesting fact is that Listoghill is the only site that has been decorated with megalithic art. Another interesting fact is that this is the only site were both burials and cremations took place.

The majority of the remains found at the location would have been cremated. All of the other tombs and passages surrounding Listoghill are arranged on a oval fashion which seems to suggest that Listoghill was the center point of worship and devotion.

The kissing stone

portal dolmen

The Kissing Stone was given it’s name during the Victorian era. Here, a capstone sits atop three upright stones and covers a large chamber which points towards the south east.

This particular Dolmen is rather tall and has lots of room within the chamber unlike some other Dolmens were there’s very little room for manoeuvre.

Fascinatingly enough, the kissing stone is surrounded by a circle of 32 boulders and each boulder measures 12.5 meters in diameter. There is also a smaller inner ring which surrounds the Dolmen.

Carrowmore 7

portal dolmen

When this tomb was cleared out, cremated bones weighing 1kg in weight were found. Some of the other finds at the site included an arrow head, limestone marble, and a piece of chert. A mass of unopened seashells were also found in a pit just outside the circle. The fact that these seashells were unopened may suggest that they were some left as some kind of offering to the gods.

The other satellite tombs

Most of the satellite tombs originally consisted of a central Dolmen stone that would have held up by a number of smaller stones. The majority of these tombs were enclosed by a boulder of circles which measured about 12 to 15 meters in diameter. One of the secrets to their longevity was because the structures were built upon a small platform and earth and stone which locked them in place.

What was discovered?

Portal Dolmen

Some of the items that were uncovered during the various excavations include antler and bone pins with mushrooms shaped heads. Archaeologists were also able to shine a light into the diet of the people who used these tombs with masses of mussels and oyster shells discovered at one site.

portal dolmen

An interesting discovery was that in most of the burials tombs fragments of Quartz were found, this suggests that Quartz had a hugely symbolic and ceremonial significance for the people who inhabited these tombs.

In the modern era, spiritualists believe that Quartz is a stone of harmony and is a help in romantic relationship. The mineral is also believed to facilitate a cleansing of the soul and mind.

Ornaments made from Sperm Whale teeth were also found in many of the graves. These findings are also suggestive of skilled fishermen and perhaps even a larger fishing fleet that hunted and caught large mammals and fish.

Each chamber contained human bone fragments and in some cases skeletons. Because cremation was the most popular method of disposing of a body the majority of the humans bones found were fragments. It appears that the chambers were also used as being a location were artefacts of significance were stored.

Data from the Carrowmore seems to overhaul the general consensus as to how passage tombs spread across the island of Ireland. Previous to the studies that were conducted at Carrowmore most historians believed that tombs spread from the east of Ireland to the west of Ireland with tombs such as Newgrange marking the beginning of the practice.

However, some of the results which were obtained at this site suggest that Carrowmore may have been one of the very first passage tomb complexes constructed in Ireland. Although, this is still open to vigorous debate.

The spread of passage tombs

The construction of megalithic tombs throughout Europe and further afield is a widespread phenomenon and many debates have opened up as to whether the spread of these tombs meant the spread of an ideology or a way of life.

Whatever the case may be there is no doubt that these tombs were a principal focus for ceremonies, burials, and celebrations as well as being markers of territory on the wider countryside.


I think its safe to say that Carrowore is one of Irelands most enigmatic and interesting mass of portal tombs in Ireland. Whilst some of the site may have been destroyed I think we owe a debt of gratitude to the local people who took the County Council to Court and prevented them from turning Carrowore into a dump for rubbish.

Whilst the behaviour of the council was and is abominable, unfortunately, this behaviour is nothing new and is another fine example of the utter contempt the Irish Government and their minions have for Irelands cultural heritage. Fortunately, a good chunk of Carrowore survives to this day and lovers history, tourists, and other visitors are still able to enjoy some of the history that lives in the place.

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What is the true history of Claddagh rings? What is their meaning?

Claddagh ring
Claddagh ring

Claddagh rings are etched into the annals of Irish history, these iconic rings are associated with romance, loyalty, love and friendship. The rings which are designed with two hands holding aloft a crown heart are widely recognised as being a symbol of Ireland and enduring love. Nowadays, these rings are widely used as fashion accessories and also as a symbolic gesture.

What do they mean?

claddagh rings

The two hands represent friendship, the heart means love, and the crown represents loyalty. The earliest known record of anyone using one of these rings dates back to the 1700’s to the Irish village of Claddagh.

The Claddagh ring is a fine example of a much broader category of rings known as faith rings or fede rings. The Italian word fede means “hands joined in fidelity.” Similar to to other variants of the ring, wearing a Claddagh ring is synonymous with with love or friendship.

The history of similar rings

The power, symbolism, and magnetism of rings goes back to the era of the ancient Egyptians who considered a circular object as being a powerful symbol deserving of reverence. The circle represented eternal life and love, and an opening carved into the circle would represent a passageway into an unknown realm or world.

It appears to have been the Romans who first introduced rings as symbols of love and friendship. The most well known ring was the fede ring, which similar to the Claddagh ring, had two hands clasped together. These fede rings were extremely popular and widely used during the Middle Ages and throughout Europe.

The widespread consensus is that the Claddagh ring originated in the small Galway village of Claddagh around the 1700s but there is much dispute as to who first made it and why they made it.

Where it all began?

claddagh ring

One legend says that an Eagle dropped a fully completed Claddagh ring straight into the lap of a woman to reward her for her hard work, generosity, and loyalty.

Another tale suggests that the origin of the ring was when a poor commoner fell in love with a wealthy lady and to prove his love to her and to her father he designed and created the Claddagh ring.

But it is the story of Richard Joyce that is most commonly associated with the Claddagh ring. Richard was a fisherman from Galway who had fallen in love with a local woman named Margaret and one day when Richard was out fishing he and his crew were captured and taken prisoner by a gang of ruthless Spanish Pirates.

During his captivity Richard grew distraught because he was going to be deprived of the woman that he loved. Eventually Richard was sold as a slave to a Spanish Goldsmith who began teaching him the trade.

To keep his spirits, alive each day, Richard would steal a small speck of gold and as the years passed by in captivity he was able to design a gold ring. His greatest dream was that one day that he might escape from his prison and present the ring to his long lost love.

In the meantime, a powerful allay of King William III heard that his fellow Christians were being held as slaves and he ordered all of these slaves to be released. When Richard was released he returned to Galway and presented his ring to his long lost love Margaret who willingly accepted him back into her arms.


Over the years Claddagh rings gained in popularity and began to be used as wedding rings in the wider Galway area. The rings also began to be associated with poor fishing families along the Galway coast who used the rings as investments.The rings were used as family heirlooms getting passed down from generation to generation.

Claddagh rings have gained widespread use and have been worn by the rich and famous. Claddagh rings have been worn by Princess Grace of Monaco and Queen Victoria. More recently Kanye West bought his wife Kim Karashian a Claddagh ring when they visited in Ireland.

One thing is for sure, that the popularity of these iconic Irish rings seems set to continue unabated.

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The true history of Celtic Crosses in Ireland? What was the meaning of a Celtic Cross?

Celtic Cross

The Celtic Cross is a symbol that is indelible associated with Ireland. There is something mysterious and uplifting when you one looks at these iconic crosses. Like the Shamrock and the Harp the Celtic Cross could easily be mistaken as the national symbol of Ireland.

The power of these crosses and how they are linked with Ireland can be seen throughout the globe. If you were to walk into a Bar in New York, Sydney, Toronto or anywhere else In the world the chances of you setting eyes on a Celtic Cross would be very high. These iconic symbols have graced the sporting arenas of Basketball, Football, Rugby and many other sports.

Nowadays, these crosses are used as a fashion accessory and can be seen on the Cat Walks in Milan right up to the swankiest and most up market stores New York.

A Celtic Cross was used was in a famous scene in the smash hit film Gangs of New York were Priest Vallon (Liam Neeson) held one of the crosses aloft as he prepared to go into battle on the streets of New York.

In graveyards throughout Ireland Celtic Crosses dot the landscape. These structures are associated with modern day Christianity and also link back to our ancient pagan past.

Controversy has abounded as to who introduced these crosses into Ireland with many believing that Saint Patrick was instrumental in bringing them into Ireland, but other people argue that Saint Columba or Saint Declan were the main reason they were introduced to the shores of the Emerald Isle.

Why and how have these crosses become associated with Ireland?

celtic crosses

 These monuments first began appearing around the 9th century and feature a cross with a ring carved into the top of it. In the majority of cases, the cross is located on atop of a pyramidal base which is used to support the monument.

Some theories suggest that the origin of these crosses may have originated from early Christian crosses whereby struts where inserted to support the top arm of the cross but many other histories disagree with this theory.

Many of the earliest examples of crosses in Ireland are carved with inscriptions of ogham, an ancient Irish language. Some of the finest examples which can be seen in Ireland are the crosses at Monasterboice, The Cross of Kells, Arboe Cross and the Clonmacnoise Cross.

My theory is that the Celtic Cross is a fusion between our Pagan past and the Christian future that was being introduced into Ireland at the time. Celtic crosses were a union between past and present.

Our pagan ancestors understood circles and the power of them, and this was an inroad Christian missionaries used to try and convert the people to this new religion that was taking over Europe.


celtic cross

One of the earliest examples of the fusion between the past and the present can be seen at Calanais on the Isle of Lewis in Scotland. This site is not your stereotypical stone cross but actually a stone cross that is planted into the ground with a stone circle surrounding it. The Calanais site is unique in that the shape of cross is made out of a structure that looks like a stone fort.

Many people believe that the circle stands for the Roman god Invictus. And that as the Celts spread throughout Europe and eventually made their way across the edges of Europe to Ireland that this was when this circle symbol was introduced to the island of Ireland.

If one was to visit any site in Ireland associated with the megalithic period the chances are you would come across stones circles etched into boulders or larger stones.

The most well known example of this practice can be witnessed at Newgrange. These circles were associated with the life giving sun. The moon. The changing of the seasons. The circle of life. Birth death and rebirth a cotinous cirlce

Some modern day puritans of the Christian religion believe that the circle represents the halo of Jesus Christ but I feel that this is unlikely when one takes into account Irelands ancient past and the prevalence of the circles within that past.

The fact that the tip of the cross hovers over the circle may be indicative of a message that Christ reigned supreme when the pagan past and the Christian futures were fused into one.

Types of crosses

celtic cross

The earliest examples of Celtic Crosses in Ireland were not carved out of rock but were inscribed into stone. One example of this type of cross is the Gallerus Oratory in County Kerry. Here you can see a slab of stone standing upright with a Celtic cross carved into its surface.

Another superb example is the Killaghtee Cross in Dunkinelly which dates from around 650BC. At the top of the rock there is the carving of a Maltese Cross which is tied with a triple knot of Saint Brigid, which is said to represent the Holy Trinity.

In general, these crosses usually fall into three separate categories.

  • Standing stone crosses. It is believed that the original purpose of these structures was to mark the boundaries between different territories.
  • Celtic High Crosses. These crosses are usually decorated with a vast array of etchings and carvings which tell the story of Christ. One of the reasons for this was because during that era the majority of the population would have been illiterate and so it would have fell upon the local monks or Christian missionaries to explain the story of Christ.   How they explained the story was by carving various scenes from the Bible onto these rocks, locals would then gather around the cross as the Monks or Missionaries used the carvings on the cross to retell the story of Christ.
  • Celtic cross memorials. The majority of these crosses date from around 1860 when the upper classes in Irish society began to use them as markers for the graves of their loved ones. Nowadays, these crosses are ubiquitous and commonplace throughout the majority of Irish graveyards.

Celtic crosses are considered to be one of Ireland’s greatest contributions to medieval art in Europe. Whilst some of these structures are seen throughout Europe it is with Ireland that the connection runs deepest.


celtic cross

Celtic crosses are steeped in style, charisma and panache. The mystery and intrigue regarding their true origins adds a further layer of depth to their meaning and power. The fact that these ancient structures are etched with a whole host of mysterious designs enhances their power as being symbols deserving of reverence and devotion.

Their true meaning is disputed but the functions that they had in the past and present is pretty much certain: Teaching the message of Christ, being used as markers of territories, and for staging political events or gatherings.

Whilst we will never really know the true meaning of the circle in these crosses it is my belief that the most likely scenario is that the circle was used as means to help the local pagans understand the message of Christ.

The circle was used as an inroad to help the Celts or ancient Irish comprehend  this new religion that was rapidly sweeping throughout Europe.

The circle on the cross also might have helped to reassure our ancient ancestors that by embracing this new religion that they would not be completely abandoning the practices of old. This theory is backed up in how many pagan traditions such as the celebration of Halloween and the reverence of the Pagan Goddess Saint Brighid is still practised to this very day.

Overall, it is safe to say that Celtic Crosses will, as long as the world keeps turning on its axis, be forever associated, connected, and indelibly linked with the Emerald Isle.

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Why did the 69th Irish Brigade pass into legend at the battle of fredericksburg?Who won?

The 69th Irish Brigade

The heroics of the 69th Irish brigade at the Battle of Frederickburg have gone down in the annals of Irish American history. For many, this bloody battle during the American Civil war was the moment when Irish immigrants to the US finally received some level of acceptance in their new country.

No longer could disloyal papist slurs be bandied about when referencing the Irish. The Irish had proven their loyalty to their new country by the blood that they had shed on the fields of Fredericksburg.

At the start of the Battle, the 69th Irish Brigade was made up of 1600 men but by the end of the days engagement only 256 men remained standing. The appalling attrition rate is evidence of a number of things (1). The reckless bravery of the 69th (2). The utter incompetence of the US military leadership.

Whilst needless deaths did occur, the bravery and heroics of the 69th on that faithful day is beyond question.  Commenting on the 69th the legendary Confederate commander General Robert E. Lee said,

“Never were men so brave. They ennobled their race by their splendid gallantry on that desperate occasion.

So who where the 69th Irish brigade and who led them?

69th Irish brigade

By any standard Thomas Francis Meagher led an extraordinary life. He was a leader of a failed rebellion in Ireland in 1848 and for his so called crimes he was banished to the remote and inhospitable Van Diemens land.

For most Irish convicts once they had arrived on the island that was it, there was no way off, but Thomas Francis Meagher was made of far sterner stuff that your average man, as he proceeded to bust out of captivity and sail all the way across the oceans of the world to the United States.

When the civil war was in its infancy Meagher saw a path in which newly arrived Irish immigrants could be accepted by their new country and this path was by proving their loyalty across the battlefields of the civil war. Mostly because of Meaghers influence the Irish Brigade was set up.

The brigade quickly began to distinguish themselves across the battlefields of the American Civil war. But it was to be the Battle of Frederickburg and in particular the Brigades assault on  Maryes Heights that the 69th  would be remembered for.

The Battle 

69th irish brigade

On the 13th of December 1862 the 69th Irish brigade fell in line beside the banks of the Rappahannock River. Brigader General Thomas Francis Meagher had overall command of the brigade. The brigade also comprised of the 63rd, 69th and 28th Massachusettes and New York regiments and the 116th Pennsylvania regiments. These regiments almost exclusively comprised of Irish immigrants.

General Ambrose Burnside had ordered suicidal full frontal assaults against Robert E Lee’s confederates who were positioned behind a stone wall at Maryes Heights. A number of attacks had failed when Burnside turned to the Irish Brigade to try and break the deadlock.

When Meagher was given the order to prepare for attack he ordered his men to put sprigs of evergreen on their caps so that they could be distinguished as being from the 69th. Meagher was dressed in a distinctive green suit which further impressed on those witnessing that this was going to be an Irish military operation.

When the soldiers of the brigade starting cheering and hollering the Gaelic saying, “faugh a bellagh” (clear the way) the men began to advance up the hill. As the 69th made their way up the across the bodies of the dead and the dieing waiting for them behind the wall was Col Robert McMillans Georgia Brigade which was a Confederate Brigade which also comprised of mostly Irishmen.

When Confederate General Robert E. Lee saw that his Irish contingent would have to shoot down their fellow countrymen he ordered reinforcements in case the Irishmen in his ranks wilted under the emotional pressure of having to shoot down their fellow brothers. But Lee need not have worried as his Confederate Irish brigade, in spite of conflicting emotions, were about to unleash hell upon the 69th.

The 69th Brigade made their way towards the stone wall at double quick pace as showers of musket and cannister shot rained down upon them. One eye witnessed noted how the 69th had a “half laughing, half murderous look in their eyes” as they advanced up the hill towards their inevitable doom.

Some of Lee’s Irish soldiers had tears in their eyes as they pulled their triggers on their fellow countrymen. But spite of their conflicting emotions, from a Confederate perspective, these soldiers performed their duties to last, raining musket-ball after musket-ball into the brave but hapless 69th Irish Brigade.

The men began to fall like domino’s as wave after wave red hot fire cut right through their ranks. But still the 69th marched on. Eyewitnesses were taken aback at the near suicidal bravery of the Irish Brigade.

Confederate General Pickett said of the attack, “The brilliant assault on Marye’s Heights of their Irish Brigade was beyond description. … We forgot they were fighting us, and cheer after cheer at their fearlessness went up all along our lines.”

The Brigade made it to within a few feet of the wall but they were eventually, for the first time in their history, forced to retreat during a battle.  The relentless and murderous confederate gunfire had proved too much.One eye witnesses stated “Nothing could advance further and live.”


The aftermath


The Irish Brigade’s bravery at Fredericksburg received a great deal of international attention, The London Times correspondent wrote, “Never at Fontenoy, Albuera, or at Waterloo was more undaunted courage displayed by the sons of Erin than during those six frantic dashes which they directed against the almost impregnable positions of their foe.”

 When news of the mammoth casualties suffered by the 69th began to leak through, amongst the Irish community, the initial reaction was one of horror. For many, The attrition rate was further proof that the US authorities would needlessly sacrifice Irish lives. Over time, it seems, that scribes have romanticized the wanton destruction and needless deaths that were caused, but such is the nature of war.

In spite of it being obvious that the capture of Myers Heights would have been an impossibility, Burnside insisted on the pig headed full frontal assault upon an impregnable position, his actions undoubtedly caused many needless deaths. But his negligence wasn’t just limited to the 69th , with the entire Union Army suffering vast casualties, so I think its a bit wide of the mark to suggest that Burnside singled out the 69th for special treatment.


The heroism of the 69th was the day that the Irish finally began to be accepted by sections of the American establishment. Tales of the brigades exploits abounded in local media sources who lavished praise on the sacrifice of the men. From Generals like Robert E. Lee to senior sources in the media, to the wider public at large, the 69th’s sacrifice would endure not only in that era but would endure right through the annals of history.